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20th Century Movements : Home

General Information

1) Create a new project in NoodleTools where you can track your citations and take notes.

2) Brainstorm some keywords to use when you search; ie. "Liberation Theology AND Brazil" or "Christianity AND Marxism AND Latin America". 

3) Use Wikipedia or an encyclopedia article as a pre-search to help you develop additional keywords and broaden your preliminary understanding of the topic.  

4) Search the databases and suggested websites listed below. 

4) Set up a Google alert for your topic / keywords (

5) If you need to access a database from off-campus, use the usernames and passwords listed below each one. 

6) Feeling stuck? Review the Upper School Research Skills guide for additional tips. 

Types of Sources

Popular - Written by professional journalist for the general public. Sources are cited in passing, but not formally. Editorially reviewed for grammar, not necessarily content.

Scholarly - Written by researchers or scholars in the field for other researchers and scholars. Always contain references and footnotes.

Primary - created as close to the original event as possible. Examples: photography, video, speech, data from an experiment.

Secondary - based on, or about, a primary source. Examples: articles or books that are based on or interpret the event.

Tertiary - Sources that summarize / synthesize the information in secondary sources. Examples: textbooks, references sources like encyclopedia.

Peer-reviewed sources have been vetted by people who are authorities within their field of scholarship. When academic journals are considering publishing an article, a panel of scholars assess the quality of the article. 

  •  Save yourself time! When searching databases, be sure to check the box marked peer-review. This limits your results to only those articles that have gone through the peer review process.

See example from ProQuest: 


Recommended Databases

General Websites

Synthesizing your Sources

Now you have your sources! Use the following writing tips to comprise your paper: 

  • Provide background information or context - You can use facts and statistics to support generalizations. They also help the reader understand why your topic is important. 
  • Explain items or concepts - explain words or ideas the reader may not understand. Use quotes or paraphrase a source. This can help you clarify concepts. However, its important that you explain why you've used a quote. How does it help further your argument?
  • Support your claims - Back up your arguments with facts and evidence from sources. 
  • Lend authority to your argument -credible opinions help bolster your argument/thesis. But don't rely on them to make the argument for you. One major goal of research is to cultivate your own scholarly voice. He point of research is to cultivate your own scholarly voice. Use your own words and cite authoritative sources to back up your claim. 
  • Anticipate and counter views - it's important to use sources that conflict with your position. Don't ignore them. Use them to provide opposing points of view and then counter them with evidence.  using sources that conflict with your position 


Evaluating Information

Useful Websites & Articles